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Thursday, 6 June 2013

Once Upon a Time-Vietnam: Viết cho các sinh viên trẻ.

Một chút lịch sử Việt Nam, viết cho các sinh viên trẻ.
Tôi nhận được thư của Giáo Sư Trần Thủy Tiên, hiện đang dạy học tại một community college ở Dallas, khuyên tôi nên viết cho các em sinh viên trẻ, về văn hóa, lịch sử Việt Nam, nhất là Sự Thực, vắn tắt nhưng dễ hiểu, viết bằng English, về cuộc chiến tranhVN, miền Nam chống lại miền Bắc, chứ không phải là cuộc chiến chống Mỹ, đế quốc xâm lược, như CSBV đã đầu độc các em từ nhỏ tại VN. Các em từ VN thì bị dạy từ nhỏ, các em ở hải ngoại thì cha mẹ thờ ơ, các cháu chỉ lo học, sau đó kiếm tiền, không được biết sự thực.
CS Việt Nam rất sợ các Tượng Đài Chiến Sĩ VNCH ở hải ngoại và cờ vàng.
Chúng không thể giải thích được những người lính này là ai, và tại sao được người Việt hản ngoại tôn kính đến thế.Cho nên chỗ nào dự định xây tượng đài chiến sĩ VNCH, là y như chỗ đó bị phá bằng mọi cách.
Lá thư này làm tôi suy nghĩ rất nhiều.
Quả đúng như vậy. Các con tôi không được dạy dỗ nên không biết gì về cuộc chiến VN. Chúng sinh ra tại hải ngoại, khả năng tiếngViệt chỉ đủ để nói những chuyện rất đơn giản, còn về Việt Ngữ, thì trình độ chỉ đủ để đọc các món ăn trong các tiệm ăn Việt Nam. Làm sao hiểu được lý do tại sao có những người Việt sống lưu đầy tại Pháp, Úc, Mỹ hay Canada....
Làm sao nó hiểu được cha mẹ chúng vất vả chỉ vì MR Đàm qua Canada hát vớ vẩn, lăng nhăng mấy bài nhạc sến.
Bởi vậy tôi đành phải bỏ công viết một bài ngắn để tóm tắt một chút lịch sử Việt Nam, sao cho các em không viết và đọc được tiếng Việt một cách thành thạo, có thể có một cái khái niệm về cuộc chiến này, tại sao VN có 2 lá cờ, và chúng phải chọn lá cờ nào.
Một chút lòng thành như vậy, chứ không phải vì một dụng ý nào khác, mong quý vị rộng lượng.
 Trần Mộng Lâm.
                                                                                    *****

Once Upon a Time, Vietnam
(Letter to my children)

This text is addressed to my children, but also to all the young Vietnamese born after 1975 to help them understand why almost 3 million Vietnamese know have to live in exile all over the world. It is the story of my life, but it is also the story of a whole generation of Vietnamese born after the Second World War: the Vietnamese baby-boomers.
Vietnam is a magnificent country with a surface area of 326,000 km2 and a population of almost 90 million people. Vietnam was founded in 2879 b.c. Until the 10th century, Vietnam has lived under Chinese domination with brief periods of independence. It became an independent country in 939. Unfortunately, in 1858, a French fleet conducted by Admiral Rigault de Genouilly took control of Da Nang bay, which was subsequently named Tourane. It was the beginning of the French colonisation, which would last until 1945. During that time, France annexed Vietnam to its colonial empire. Ever since the arrival of the French, the Vietnamese people continuously revolted against the colonial hold, each in its own way, with the means that they had. Amongst these people, one must cite Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chau Trinh, Emperor Duy Tan, Nguyen Sinh Cung and Nguyen Thai Hoc. The latter founded the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang party, composed of “Nationalists” close to the Guomindang, the Chinese Nationalist Party.
In 1930, the Communist Indochinese party was founded by Nguyen Sinh Cung, who would later be known as Nguyen Tat Thang, Nguyen Ai Quoc and finally Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh’s ultimate goal was not the independence of Vietnam but rather to take over the power that would allow him to add this small country to the international communist world (along with Cambodia and Laos). Many Vietnamese who loved their country did not share his opinion and the Vietnamese people have been divided ever since.
In 1932, Vietnam was under the rule of Emperor Bao Dai. Emperor Bao Dai had studied in France. He established a constitutional monarchy under the French protectorate. In reality, it was the French who were in control. The emperor was now only a symbol.
The Second World War
The Second World War began in 1939. In 1939, the Japanese empire invaded French Indochina. The French were tolerated by the Japanese occupiers because Japan only used Indochina as a transit site for its soldiers. Also, France with Petain for president was still officially neutral at that time.
In 1941, the Indochinese Communist Party creates the Viet Minh line, led by Ho Chi Minh.
In 1945, a famine wreaks havoc in the north of Vietnam. Taking advantage of the situation, the Viet Minh gains in popularity.
On March 9th 1945, fearing an incursion from the allied forces in Indochina, the Japanese attack the French armed forces by surprise. The French are either imprisoned or slaughtered.
On March 11th 1945, Bao Dai, while collaborating with the Japanese, declares the independence of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government is formed on April 17th 1945 with Tran Trong Kim as its prime minister. This government was dissolved on August 8th 1945. The communists have never recognized Bao Dai and his government.
On august 15th 1945, after the bombardment of Hiroshima with the atomic bomb, Japan announced its surrender.
On august 17th 1945, the Viet Ming takes over the power in Hanoi. This is known as the “August Revolution”.
On September 2nd 1945, in Ba Dinh square, Ho Chi Minh proclaims the independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Bao Dai abdicates and becomes a “special consultant”.
In October 1945, the French troops reinvest Indochina.
In December 1945, France occupies Hanoi. Bao Dai is recognized by France as the head of state of unified Vietnam.
It is the beginning of the Indochina War.  
The Indochina War
On one side, the Viet Minh has the support of the Soviet Union and the Popular Republic of China. On the other side, the Vietnamese Nationalists-Anticommunists, with Emperor Bao Dai, receive help from the French army to fight the communist expansion.
On May 7th 1954, with the help of the Russians and mostly the Chinese, the communists win the battle of Dien Bien Phu.  
The Geneva agreements are signed by Pierre Mandès France and Pham Van Dong, respectively the prime ministers of France and of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Vietnam is divided into two: the North goes to the communists and the South to the Nationalists-Anticommunists.
Vietnamese from the South who are partisans of communism have to move to the North. The Nationalists-Anticommunists from the North have to move to the South.
One million North-Vietnamese had to make a painful decision of leaving their homes and all their belongings behind for a simple reason: they did not accept to live under a communist regime.
My family was part of that community of North-Vietnamese Nationalists. That is why I was born in the North, but was raised in the South. I still consider myself as a South-Vietnamese.
The Vietnam War
In October of 1955, in the south of Vietnam, Bao Dai is disposed by his Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm after a coup d’état. The state of Vietnam under Bao Dai becomes the Republic of Vietnam with Ngô Đình Diệm as president. Ngô Đình Diệm’s regime will only last 8 years. The South-Vietnamese then receives the help from the Americans with the MACV (Military Assistance Command, Vietnam), because the communist troops had begun to massively infiltrate the South. The Americans did not want to let the Communists (and Russia) completely control that area of the world. Fearing that the Communists from the North (helped by the Russian and Chinese militaries) were becoming too strong, the U.S.A sent their first soldiers to South Vietnam in 1960. Because of his dictatorial regime, Ngô Đình Diệm is assassinated in 1963. Political chaos ensues.
After the death of president Ngô Đình Diệm, the power to rule South Vietnam fell in the hand of the generals of the South Vietnam Army, the last of which was named Duơng Văn Minh.
With the military and economic assistance from the U.SA, South Vietnam held its ground pretty firmly against the invasion from the Communists from the North. Unfortunately, near the end of the 60’s, the Americans manage to establish discrete relations with China and do not see the necessity to help further the South Vietnamese Nationalists. It was too costly both in money and in human lives for the Americans. Many American soldiers had been killed during the war and the American people were wondering why their citizens had to fight in that foreign country. The battle between the North and the South became uneven. The North continued to receive help from Russia and China while the South was abandoned and had to fight with very limited resources. The South Vietnamese soldiers were very courageous and brave, but courage is was not enough; they needed more weapons.
The Fall of Saigon and the exodus of Vietnamese
On April 30th 1975, Saigon falls to the hands of the new authorities: the Communists from the North. They send all the officers of the South’s army and the civil servants of the old government to the numerous concentration camps. Many people are killed while others commit suicide. Millions of people are sent in new economic zones.
The North Vietnamese begin a meticulous destruction of the culture of the South, which they consider as anti-revolutionary.
The exodus of the South-Vietnamese begins in 1975 with the fall of Saigon. This exodus will continue with the boat people in the following years.
Many countries from the free world such as the United States, France, Canada and Australia opened their doors to receive these political refugees, who continue to fight to liberate their country from the barbarism of communism and demand freedom and human rights for the Vietnamese people.
In summary:
The Vietnamese people are still currently divided: there are those who are for communism and those who are against it.
The former group’s flag is red and holds a 5 branch yellow star.
The latter group’s flag is yellow with three red stripes. Today, this flag represents the Vietnamese expatriates’ flag (around 3 millions) to which former French and American servicemen that have fought in Vietnam often associate with. It is the symbol of the expatriated and free Vietnamese diaspora (Heritage and Freedom Flag).
 Trần Mộng Lâm 
       *****
      Bảng Viết Bằng Tiếng Pháp:
l était une fois, le viet nam
(Lettre à mes enfants).
Ce texte  s'adresse à mes enfants mais aussi à tous les jeunes Vietnaminens nés après 1975 pour qu'ils puissent comprendre pourquoi maintenants il y a presque 3 millions de Vietnaminens vivant en exil dans tous les coins du monde. C'est l'histoire de toute une génération de Vietnamiens nés après la deuxième guerre mondiale, des baby boomers vietnamiens.
Le Vietnam est un pays magnifique, avec ses 326.000 km2 de superficie et une population de presque 90 millions d'habitants. Le Vietnam fut fondé en 2879 avant J-C. Jusqu'au 10è siècle, le Vietnam vit une domination chinoise entrecoupée de courtes périodes d'indépendance Depuis 939, Le Vietnam devenait un pays indépendant . Malheureusement, en 1858, une flotte francaise conduite par l'amiral Rigault de Genouilly s'empare de la baie de Da Nang, francisé en Tourane. C'est le début de la  colonisation francaise qui dure jusqu'à 1945. Pendant ces périodes, la France annexe le Vietnam à son empire colonial. Depuis l'arrivée des francaìs, les vietnamiens n'ont cessé de se révolter contre l'emprise coloniale, chacun selon ses possibilités, à sa manière. Parmi ces personnes, il faut citer Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chau Trinh, l'empereur Duy Tan, Nguyen Sinh Cung et Nguyen Thai Hoc.Ce dernier fonda le parti Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, composé de "nationalistes" proche de guomindang des chinois nationalistes.
En 1930, le parti Communiste indochinois est fondé par Nguyen Sinh Cung, ce dernier se faisant appeler Nguyen Tat Thanh, Nguyen Ai Quoc puis Ho Chi Minh.Le but ultime de Ho Chi Minh n'est pas l'indépendance du Viet Nam mais de s'emparer du pouvoir pour transformer ce petit pays, en même temps le Cambodge et le Laos, en des morceaux du monde communiste international . Les vietnamiens qui aiment leur pays ne partagent pas cette opinion et le peuple vietnamien est divisé depuis. 
 En 1932, le Vietnam était sous le règne de l'empereur Bao Dai. Celui-ci faisait des études en France et intaurait une monarchie constitutionnelle sous le protectorat francais.En réalité, ce sont les francais qui prennent le pouvoir. L'empereur n'est plus qu'un symbole.
La Segonde Guerre Mondiale.
La seconde guerre mondiale éclata en 1939 . L'empire du Japon envahit l'Indochine francaise.Les francais sont tolérés par l'occupant japonais car les japonais utilisent l'Indochine comme un lieu de transit pour les soldats japonais et en ce moment, la France de Pétain  était officiellement neutre..
En 1941, le parti communiste indochinois crée la ligne Viet Minh dont Ho Chi Minh prend la tête.
En 1945, une famine fait rage dans le Nord du Viet Nam. Grace à cette tragédie, le Viet Minh gagne en popularité.
Le 9 mars 1945, craignant une incursion alliée en Indochine, les  japonais attaquent les forces armées francaises par surprise, les francais sont emprisonnés ou massacrés.
11 mars 1945, Bao Dai, collaborant avec les japonais, proclame l'indépendance du Viet Nam.Le gouvernement du" Viet Nam est formé le 17 avril 1945 avec Tran Trong Kim comme premier ministre.Ce gouvernement est dissous le 8 aout 1945. Les communistes n'ont jamais reconnu Bao Dai et son gouvernement.
Le 15 aout 1945, après le bombardement de Hiroshima par la bombe atomique, le Japon annonce sa capitulation.
le 17 aout, le Viet Minh prend le pouvoir à Hanoi. C'est l'épisode connu sous le nom de "Révolution d'Aout".
Le 2 septembre 1945, sur la place Badinh à Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh proclame l'indépendance de la République Démocratique du Viet Nam. .Bao Dai abdique, devient "conseiller spécial".
En Octobre 1945, les troupes francaises réinvestissent l'Indochine.
Décembre, la France occupe Hanoi. Bao Dai est reconnu par la France comme chef de l'Etat du Viet Nam unifié"
C'est le début de la guerre d'Indochine.
La Guerre D'Indochine.
Le Viet Minh a le soutien de l'Union Sovietique et de la République populaire de Chine d'un coté.
De l'autre coté, les nationaliste anticommunistes vietnamiens se regroupent sous  l'empereur Bao Dai qui recoit l'aide de l'armée francaise pour lutter contre l'expansion communiste.
Le 7 mai 1954, avec l'aide des russes, et surtout des chinois, les communistes gagnent la bataille de Dien Bien Phu.
Les accords de Geneve sont signés entre Pierre Mandès (France) et Pham Van Dong, respectivement premier ministre de la France et de la république Démocratique du Viet Nam. Le Viet Nam est divisé en 2 : Le Nord aux communistes et le Sud aux nationalistes, anticommunistes.
Les Vietnamiens du Sud qui aiment le communisme doivent quitter le sud pour se déménager au nord. Les nationaliste anticommunistes de nord doivent faire le contraire.
Un million de nord-vietnamiens ont fait une douloureuse décision en quittant leurs maisons, en abandonnant derrière eux tous les biens matériaux pour la simple raison : ils n'acceptent pas vivre sous le communisme.
Ma famille fait partie de cette commmunauté du Nord-Vietnamiens nationalistes.C'est pour cette raison que je suis né au Nord mais élevé au Sud. Je me considère toujours comme un sud-vietnamien.
La Guerre Du Viet Nam .
Au Sud du Viet Nam, en octobre 1955, Bao Dai a été déposé à la suite d'un coup d'État effectué par son premier ministre Ngô Đình Diệm.L' Etat du Viet-Nam sous Bao Dai devient la République Du Viet Nam avec Ngô Đình Diệm comme président. Le régime de Ngô Đình Diệm ne dure que 8 ans. Les sud-vietmamiens recoivent l'aide des Américains avec la MACV (Military assistance command, vietnam ) car les troupes communistes du Nord ont commencé à infiltrer massivement au Sud. Les américains ont aidé les sud-vietnamiens parcequ'ils ne veulent pas laisser les communistes (dont la Russie) controler complètement cette région du monde. Comme les communiste du Nord, avec l'aide militaire de la Russie et de la Chine sont trop puissants, en 1960, les premiers soldats américains arrivent au Sud du Vietnam. À cause de son régime trop dictatorial, Ngo Dinh Diệm est assasiné en 1963. Le chaos politique s'installe.
Depuis la mort du président Ngô Đình Diệm, le pouvoir de dirriger le Sud du Viet Nam tombe dans la mains des généraux de l"armée du Sud dont le dernier est Duơng Văn Minh .
Avec l'aide militaire et économique des américains, le Sud du Viet Nam se tient debout  assez solidement devant l'invasions des communistes du Nord. Malheureusement, vers la fin des années 60, les américains ont réussi à établir des relations discrètes avec la Chine et ne trouvent pas la necessité d'aider davantage les nationalistes sud-vietnamiens . En fait, l'aide américains coute trop cher en argent et en vies humaines pour les áméricains . Beaucoup de soldats américains ont été tués pendant la guerre et le peuple américain se demande pourquoi ses citoyens doivent se combattre dans ce pays . La lutte entre le Nord et le Sud du Viet Nam devient inégale. Le Nord continue de recevoir l'aide de la Russie et de la Chine tandis que le Sud est abandonné et doit se combattre avec ses moyens très limités. Les soldats Sud Vietnamins, très courageux, très braves mais la courage ne suffit pas, il leur faut des armes
La Chute Du Saigon et L'exode des Vietnamiens.
Le 30 Avril 1975, Saigon tombe dans la main des nouvelles autorités : Les communistes venant du Nord.  Ils envoient tous les anciens officiers de l'armée du Sud et les fontionnaires de l'ancien gouvernement à de nombreux camps de concentration. Beaucoup de personnes ont été tuées, d'autres se sont suicidé.. Des millions de personnes  furent envoyées dans des nouvelles zones économiques.
Les Nord-Vietnamiens commencent une destruction minutieuse de toute la culture du Sud qu'ils considèrent comme antivréolutionnaire.
L'exode des Sud Vietnamiens commence en 1975, avec la chute de Saigon. Cet exode continue avec des "boat people" des années après.
Les pays du monde libre, dont Les U.S.A, La France, Le Canada, L'Austrliae....ont tendu leurs mains pour recevoir ces réfugiés politiques qui continuent à lutter pour libérer leur pays du communisme barbare et demander la liberté, les droits de l'homme pour le peuple vietnamien.
En Résumé:
À l'heure actuelle, le peuple  Vietnamien est encore divisé : Ceux qui aiment le communisme et ceux qui ne l'aiment pas.
Le drapeau du premier groupe est rouge, portant une étoile jaune à cinq branche.
Le drapeau du 2è  groupe est de couleur jaune avac trois bandes rouges. De nos jours, ce drapeau est celui de l'opposition des vietnamiens expatriés (environ 3 millions) auxquels s'associent souvent d'anciens militaires Francais et Américains qui ont combattu au Viet Nam.
Le drapeau jaune avec trois bandes rouge est le symbol de la diaspora vietnamienne expatriée et libre (Heritage&fredom Flag).
 Trằn Mộng Lâm.
                                                                          
                                                                     


@Diễn Đàn Người Dân Việt Nam

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